This article on “git log format commit history” is the second article in the git log series. In this article, we will discuss some advanced options to format and print the commit logs to fetch the information that you need out of your project journal history.

In the previous article, you must have learned how to get started by setting up a repository to view the commit logs. Also, since we already know, Git keeps a Journal of the changes committed to the project history, we shall now explore more ways the ‘git log’ command is helpful.

Firstly, I am switching-to/checking out the “feature1” branch for a convenient and shorter history.
Use the commands –

$cd myProj–Switch to the git project

$git checkout feature1–jump to the ‘feature1’ branch

1. Commit Formatting

1.1 Pretty-print the output contents in a given format

Syntax: git log --pretty[=]

where,  can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw, and format:
When = part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

1.1.1 –pretty=oneline

Pretty print commit log in a ‘single line’
Command: git log --pretty=oneline
Formats the output in sequence:

1.1.2 –pretty=short

Format commit output ‘short’ in the format:
commit (refname) 

</span><span> </span><span class="s1"><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-102921 size-full" src=""><br /></span></p> <h4>1.1.3 –pretty=medium</h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --pretty=medium</code><br /> Print commit output in the ‘medium’ format:<br /> commit<sha1><br /><strong>Author</strong>: <author><br /><strong>Date:</strong> <author date></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><title line></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><full commit message><br /><span class="s1"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101161 size-full" src=""></span></p> <h4><strong>1.1.4 –pretty=full</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">Command:<span> </span><code>git log --pretty=full</code><br /> Output is in the format:<br /> commit<sha1> (refname)<br /><strong>Author:</strong> <author><br /><strong>Commit:</strong> <committer></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><title line></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><full commit message><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101621 size-full" src=""></p> <h4><strong>1.1.5 –pretty=fuller</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command: </strong><code>git log --pretty=fuller</code><br /> commit<sha1> (refname)<br /><strong>Author:</strong> <author><br /><strong>AuthorDate</strong>: <author date><br /><strong>Commit:</strong> <committer><br /><strong>CommitDate:</strong> <committer date></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><title line></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><full commit message><br /><span class="s1"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101162 size-full" src=""></span></p> <h4><strong>1.1.6 –pretty=email</strong></h4> <p>Command:<span> </span><code>git log --pretty=email</code><br /> Print log output in the email style format:<br /> From <sha1> <date><br /><strong>From:</strong> <author><br /><strong>Date:</strong> <author date><br /><strong>Subject:</strong> [PATCH] <title line></p> <p><full commit message><br /><span class="s1"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101163 size-full" src=""></span></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.1.7 –pretty=raw</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">Command:<span> </span><code>git log --pretty=raw</code><br /> The raw log output format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object.<br /> commit <sha-1><br /> tree <tree-sha-1> parent <sha-1 of the previous commit object><br /> author <author name> <email id> <timestamp><br /> commit <committer name> <committer email id> <timestamp></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><title line></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><full commit message></p> <p><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101164 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.1.8 –format:<string> : Custom formatting</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">The format allows you to specify which information of the commit object you want to print in the commit output log<br /> Let us consider the various placeholder this option provides just like a ‘C printf’ function with the help of code snippets:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Command:<span> </span><code>git log --pretty=format:"%h %ad | %s %d [%an]" --date=short</code><br /><strong>Output format:</strong><br /> <sha-1> <author date> | <commit title> <refname> [author name] <p style="text-align: justify;"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101638 size-full" src=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>%h</strong>=Shortened hash-id/sha1commit ids<br /><strong>%H</strong>=long sha-1 ids<br /><strong>%ad</strong>=authored date<br /><strong>%s</strong>= commit subject title line<br /><strong>%d</strong>=reference pointer(branch, tag) names<br /><strong>%an</strong>=author name<br /><strong>–date</strong>=short: Print just the date and not time in a readable format</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Now, how about making this output more human-friendly, using colors.<br /><strong>Command:</strong><br /><code><span class="s1">git log --pretty=format:"%C(yellow)%h%Creset %ad | %Cgreen%s%Creset %Cred%d%Creset %Cblue[%an]" --date=short</span></code></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101639 size-full" src=""><br /> Some other placeholders used in the above code snippet are:<br /><strong>%C(yellow)</strong>: Turn the following string to yellow<br /><strong>%Creset</strong>: Reset the following string back to default(white) color<br /><strong>%Cgreen</strong>: change following string to green<br /><strong>%Cred:</strong> Change the following string to red<br /><strong>%Cblue:</strong> Make the author name blue in color</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">You do not have to remember and write the whole command every time, just use a short name as<span> </span><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank">git alias</a><span> </span>as shown below:<br /><strong>Command:</strong><br /><code><span class="s1">git config --global alias.c-hist 'log --pretty=format:"%C(yellow)%h%Creset %ad | %Cgreen%s%Creset %Cred%d%Creset %Cblue[%an]" --date=short'</span></code></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>“c-hist”<span> </span></em>represents<span> </span><strong>c</strong>ustomized-<strong>hist</strong>ory<br /> So, as you would have observed I am setting my global<span> </span><a href="">git configuration</a><span> </span>file with the values.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Now, to check the history of the current branch all you have to do is run the command, like so:<br /><strong>Command: </strong><code>git c-hist</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-102155 size-full" src=""></p> <h3 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.2 –abbrev-commit: Shorten git commit hash-id</strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command: </strong><code>git log --abbrev-commit</code><br /><span class="s1">The full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name is shortened to default 7-bytes.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="s1"><br /></span><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-102931 size-full" src=""><span class="s1"><span class="Apple-converted-space">       </span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Let us club it with the ‘<code>--oneline</code>‘ option for a convenient view, like so:<br /><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code><span class="s1">git log --abbrev-commit --oneline</span></code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101980 size-full" src=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">What’s more exciting is that you can also specify the byte length of sha-1 ids using the ‘–abbrev=<n>’ option, as shown below:<br /><strong>Command: </strong><code>git log --abbrev-commit --abbrev=5 --oneline</code></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><code></code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101984 size-full" src=""><br /> Clearly, the highlighted sha-1 ids are reduced to 5-byte size.</p> <h3><strong><span class="s1">1.3 –no-abbrev-commit</span></strong></h3> <p><span class="s1">Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name.<br /> This negates<span> </span><b>–abbrev-commit</b><span> </span>and those options which imply</span><span class="s1"> it such as “–oneline”.<br /></span><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --pretty=oneline --no-abbrev-commit</code></p> <p><code></code><br /><span class="s1"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101168 size-full" src=""><br /></span></p> <h3><strong>1.4 –relative-date</strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --relative-date</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101470 size-full" src=""><br /> Kindly note, this highlighted time is subjected to change with reference to the time you execute the command on your system.</p> <h3 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5 –date=<format></strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">You can also format the commit logs date in any of the following format options:</p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.1 –date=relative</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command</strong> :<code>git log --date=relative</code><br /> This is synonymous with the above command “<code>git log --relative-date</code>” and prints the same commits.</p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.2 –date=local</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command</strong>:<span> </span><code>git log --date=local</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101465 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.3 –date=iso</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --date=iso</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101473 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.4 –date=iso-strict</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --date=iso-strict</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101474 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.5 –date=rfc</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --date=rfc</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101476 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.6 –date=short</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --date=short</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101478 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.7 –date=raw (shows the date in seconds)</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command: </strong><code>git log --date=raw</code><br /> Print the time as seconds since the<span> </span><a href="">unix epoc</a><span> </span>time ( Jan 01 1970 ) followed by the timezone.<img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101483 size-full" src=""></p> <h4><strong>1.5.8 –date=human</strong></h4> <p><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --date=human</code><code></code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-102936 size-full" src=""><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101495 size-full" src=""></p> <h4 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.5.9 –date=unix</strong></h4> <p style="text-align: justify;">Shows the date as<span> </span><a href="">unix epoc</a><span> </span>(UTC) time.<br /> Command:<span> </span><code>git log --date=unix</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-102937 size-full" src=""></p> <h3 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.6 –parents</strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">Print also the parents of each commit in the format: <commit> <parent and/or parents><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --parents</code><br /><strong>Oneliner output Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --parents --oneline</code></p> <p><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101723 size-full" src=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Points to be noted:<br /><strong>C366419</strong><span> </span>is a merge commit, hence has 2 parents respectively:<span> </span><span class="s1"><em>feeb30c</em><span> </span>and<span> </span></span><span class="s1"><em>4920adc</em><br /> Likewise;<span> </span></span><br /><span class="s1"><strong>1d67b50</strong><span> </span>is a merge commit, that resulted from merging<span> </span></span><span class="s1"><em>f2ff2e4</em><span> </span>and<span> </span></span><span class="s1"><em>abb694b</em><br /></span><strong>078f9f5</strong><span> </span>is a merge commit created by merging<span> </span><em>9a2412e</em><span> </span>and<span> </span><em>ab3a5e5</em><br /><span class="s1">Whereas,<span> </span><strong>86792c6</strong><span> </span>is the initial commit, hence no parent.</span></p> <h3 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.7 –children</strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="s1">Print also the children in the form <commit> <children><br /><strong>Command: </strong><code>git log --children --oneline</code></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101724 size-full" src=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Note</strong>:<br /> 006b9ce is the latest commit, hence has no children commit object yet. The next change you make and commit on this branch will be the child commit object of this latest sha-1 id.</p> <h3 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.8 –graph</strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history before the sha-1 ids.<br /><strong>Command:</strong><span> </span><code>git log --graph</code><br /><strong>Improved oneliner output: </strong><code>git log --graph --oneline</code></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101725 size-full" src=""><br /> This lets you understand when, how and why and other branches were merged into the currently checked out branch.</p> <h3 style="text-align: justify;"><strong>1.9 –show-linear-break</strong></h3> <p style="text-align: justify;">Command:<span> </span><code>git log --show-linear-break</code><br /> This is a useful command, to indicate a barrier between 2 consecutive commits that do not belong to a linear branch, in other words the commits that came from different branches.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101726 size-full" src=""><br /> Compare the above output with the ‘git log –graph’ command output that clearly shows how the “linear-break” commits have been merged.</p> <h2>Bonus: Summarise git log output: ‘git shortlog’</h2> <p>The ‘<code>git shortlog</code>‘ command categorizes the commit logs author wise and prints an overview summary, indicating the commits made by each author.<br /> Command:<span> </span><code>git log shortlog</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101727 size-full" src=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Command</strong>:<span> </span><code>git log shortlog -s</code><br /> -s stands for –summary, suppress commit description and just print the count of commits by each author, like so:<img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101728 size-full" src=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Furthermore, you could also format the output using the same placeholders as discussed under ‘<code>--pretty=format</code>‘ option<br /> Try the command:<span> </span><code>git shortlog --format="%h | %s"</code><br /><img class="blur-up lazyloaded aligncenter wp-image-101729 size-full" src=""><br /> Hence, you shall agree this output makes more sense as it shows the <sha-1> id and the <commit title> for each author along with the total commits count.</p> <p><strong>Note</strong>:<span> </span><em>It is interesting to note that you can very easily find the branch that made a particular commit. It is worth taking up this discussion in upcoming articles in depth.</em></p> <p>So with that, we come to an end of this <span id="" class="tL8wMe EMoHub">Git log format history </span>blog, I hope you found it informative.</p> <p>In this post, we learned some formatting techniques that print the project information in a more customized and user-friendly way. You should now know how to effectively use the parameters of ‘git log’ command to pull out any information you need about the source code from your committed history. So with that, we come to an end of this article, I hope you found it informative.</p> <p><em>If you’re curious to learn more you can check out this<span> </span><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank">DevOps Certification Training</a> by Edureka, a trusted online learning company with a network of more than 250,000 satisfied learners spread across the globe. The Edureka DevOps Certification Training course helps learners to understand what is DevOps and gain expertise in various DevOps processes and tools such as Puppet, Jenkins, Nagios, Ansible, Chef, Saltstack and GIT for automating multiple steps in SDLC.</em></p> <p><em>Got a question for us? Please mention it in the comments section of this article on “Git log format history” and we will get back to you.</em></p> </div> </div><!-- .entry-content --> <footer class="entry-footer"> <span class="cat-links">Posted in <a href="" rel="category tag">DevOps</a></span><span class="tags-links">Tagged <a href="" rel="tag">AWS</a>, <a href="" rel="tag">docker</a>, <a href="" rel="tag">jenkins</a>, <a href="" rel="tag">kubernetes</a>, <a href="" rel="tag">pipelines</a></span> </footer><!-- .entry-footer --> </article><!-- #post-## --> <nav class="navigation post-navigation" role="navigation"> <h1 class="screen-reader-text">Post navigation</h1> <div class="nav-links"> <div class="nav-previous"><a href="" rel="prev"><span class="meta-nav">←</span> Concerns With the Current State of DevOps</a></div><div class="nav-next"><a href="" rel="next">What is Maven in Java and how do you use it? <span class="meta-nav">→</span></a></div> </div><!-- .nav-links --> </nav><!-- .navigation --> 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